Converging activation resulting from "top-down" processing affects comprehension. The paper by Anderson and Reder
(1974) listed here shows that priming of an alternative meaning does not slow comprehension but may cause the
wrong meaning to be selected altogether. The other papers demonstrate a failure to notice a mis-match in memory
retrieval during parsing due to the heavy priming/activation of the schematic structure from the other elements
in the question.
Anderson, J.R., Badiu, R., & Reder, L.M. (2001). A Theory of Sentence Memory as Part of a General Theory
of Memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 337-367 [lead article].
Kamas, E., Reder, L.M., & Ayers, M. (1996). Partial matching in the Moses Illusion: Response bias not
sensitivity. Memory and Cognition, 24, 687-699. [lead article]
Reder, L.M. & Kusbit, G.W. (1991). Locus of the Moses Illusion: Imperfect encoding, retrieval or match?
Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 385-406. [lead article]
Reder, L.M. & Cleeremans, A. (1990). The role of partial matches in comprehension: The Moses illusion
revisited. In A. Graesser & G. Bower, (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation, Vol. 25,
New York: Academic Press, pp.233-258. [download PDF]
Reder, L.M. (1983). What kind of pitcher can a catcher fill? Effects of priming in sentence comprehension.
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 189-202.
Anderson, J.R. & Reder, L.M. (1974). Negative judgements in and about semantic memory. Journal of
Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 664-681.